GLOSSARY

This glossary contains terms used for describing the matters related to art and advanced technology. It was compiled by Dmitry Bulatov (National Center for Contemporary Arts, Kaliningrad branch, Russia), with the experts advisory support from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Art & Science Collaborations, Inc. (ASCI, New York), ZKM Center for Art- and Mediatechnology (Karlsruhe), with the special help from George Gessert, Tatiana Gorjucheva, David Darrow, Konstantin Mitenev, Ionat Zurr, and Roy Ascott.

On the basis of this glossary Dmitry Bulatov (the Kaliningard Branch of NCCA) is working on an international encyclopedia covering the terms and concepts of high technology art. It provides a comprehensive and detailed terminological representation of high technology art (including such subtrends as artificial life, evolutionary design, robotics, Technobody modification, WearComp, Biomechatronics, Implantology. bio- and genetic art, Neuroengineering, Tissue and Stem Cells Engineering, nanotechnologies, etc). After visiting the site, those interested in adding their terms to the glossary database may do so. We encourage the representatives of contemporary art and science to participate in this project.

A- (B-)Biology: Terms determining biological status: «A» means purely natural, «B» — artificially biological. 
Algorithm: An explicit procedure for solving identical or similar problems or tasks.
Amino Acids: Organic molecules that are the building blocks of proteins. There are some two hundred known amino acids, of which twenty are used extensively in living organisms. See Protein.
Animates: Artificial animals (from engl. animal and automat).
Artificial Intelligence (AI): The field of research that aims to understand and build intelligent machines; this term may also refer to an intelligent machine itself. 
Artificial Life (ALife): The reproduction of biological processes or organisms and their behavior by means of artificial components (programs) in computer systems, in order to draw conclusions about reality.
Assembler: A molecular machine that can be programmed to build virtually any molecular structure or device from simpler chemical building blocks. See Replicator, Limited Assembler.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): All treatments or procedures that involve surgically removing eggs from a woman's ovaries and combining the eggs with sperm to help a woman become pregnant. The types of ART are in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and zygote intrafallopian transfer.
Atom: The smallest particle of a chemical element (about three ten-billionths of a meter in diameter). Atoms are the building blocks of molecules and solid objects; they consist of a cloud of electrons surrounding a dense nucleus a hundred thousand times smaller than the atom itself.
Automated Engineering: The use of computers to perform engineering design, ultimately generating detailed designs from broad specifications with little or no human help. Automated engineering is a specialized form of artificial intelligence. See Artificial Intelligence.
Avatar: An electronic representative of a person within a virtual environment (usually as an animated entity).
Bacteria: Unicellular living organisms, typically about one micron in diameter. Bacteria are among the oldest, simplest, and smallest types of cells. See Cell.
Base Pair (bp): Two nitrogenous bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs.
Biochauvinism: A prejudice that biological systems have an intrinsic superiority that will always give them a monopoly on self-reproduction and intelligence.
Biochip: An analytical array with a size of several inches, which would allow one to obtain information on the state of all genes of the studied organism. Biochips are classified into oligonucleotide and cDNA biochips; the first type contains small DNA fragments usually belonging to the same gene and the second type contains long gene fragments, up to 1.000 nucleotides applied by a robot to a surface. See also DNA.
Bioethics: Ecological responsibility for the biosphere in general. Within the edition it implies application of moral discourses to biomedical technologies.
Biomimetic Simulation: A simulation copied directly from the living via cellular automata, genetic algorithms, collective intelligence modeling, dynamic morphogenesis, etc. Biomimetic simulation draws on three types of functioning of the living: autoregulation, autopreservation, autoreproduction.
Bioreactor: A controlled artificial environment designed to promote life processes; often associated with culturing associated with tissue engineered systems.
Biota: A cybercommunity researching postbiological models.
Biotechnology: A list of areas covered by the term includes recombinant DNA, plant tissue culture, gene splicing, enzyme systems, plant breeding, meristem culture, mammalian cell culture, immunology, molecular biology, fermentation, and others. Study of the techniques used to derive products from organisms, plants, and parts of both for the biotechnology industry. See also Cell, DNA, Enzyme, Recombinant DNA, Tissue Culture.
Biotelematics: A range of biointegrated methods used to transmit and process information.
Blastocyst: The blastula of mammals: a sphere of cells (trophoblast) enclosing an inner mass of cells and a fluid-filled cavity (blastocoel).
Blastomer: One of the cells formed during the fertilized egg division. 
Bot: Any type of autonomous software that operates as an agent for a user or a program or simulates a human activity. See also Nanorobot, Neurobot.
Bulk Technology: Technology based on the manipulation of atoms and molecules in bulk, rather than individually; most present technology falls into this category.
Cell Engineering: A method of designing new types of cells based on their cultivation, hybridization and reconstruction. See Cell.
Cell: A membrane-bound unit, typically microns in diameter. All plants and animals are made up of one or more cells (trillions, in the case of human beings). In general, each cell of a multi-cellular organism contains a nucleus holding all of the genetic information of the organism. 
Chimera Art (Ars Chimaera): The field of artistic activity connected with the purposeful construction of new combinations of genes, not existing in natural conditions, enabling the production of organisms with given heritable aesthetic characteristics. See Degenesis, Transgenesis, Neogenesis.
Chimera Design: The activity involving aesthetic reconstruction and refining of living (semi-living) organisms through recombinant DNA manipulation. See Static Form and Kinetic Form of Chimera Design.
Chimera: a) (biol.) An organism consisting of tissue or parts of diverse genetic constitution. b) (myth.) A fire-breathing monster with the head of a lion, body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent. c) A wild and unrealistic dream or notion. d) A fabulous beast made up of parts taken from various animals.
Clone: A group of individual organisms (or cells) produced from one individual cell through asexual processes that do not involve the interchange or combination of genetic material.
Cloning: The process of asexually producing a group of cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestor. In recombinant DNA technology, the use of DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA is referred to as cloning DNA. SeeDNA.
Codon: A triplet of nucleotides [three nucleic acid units (residues) in a row] within messenger RNA (mRNA) that code for an amino acid (triplet code) or a termination signal. See RNA, Amino Acids, Nucleotide.
Cyberception: A bionic faculty in the human repertoire, involving an amplification of conceptual and perceptual processes, in which also the connectivity of telematic networks plays a formative role.
Degenesis: Exclusion of genes or genetic structures of an organism with the aim to acquire new characteristics of the organism. See Gene, Mutation, Chimera Art.
Differentiation: In the general sense, the increasing specialization of organization of the different parts of an embryo as a multi-cellular organism develops from the undifferentiated fertilized egg. Referring to cells, the development of cells with specialized structure and function from unspecialized precursor cells, which occurs in embryonic development and in the subsequent replacement of certain types of cell from persisting unspecialized stem cells. See also Cell.
Disassembler: A system of nanomachines able to take an object apart a few atoms at a time, while recording its structure at the molecular level. See Nanotechnology.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): DNA molecules are long chains consisting of four kinds of nucleotides; the order of these nucleotides encodes the information needed to construct protein molecules. These in turn make up much of the molecular machinery of the cell. DNA is the genetic material of cells. The extent of the DNA molecule segment is usually measured by the number of nucleotide pairs it contains. See Nucleotide, RNA.
Engineering: The use of scientific knowledge and trial-and-error to design systems. See Science.
Enzyme: A protein that acts as a catalyst in a biochemical reaction.
Eucaryotes: Cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed sub-cellular compartments. Eucaryotes include all organisms except viruses, bacteria, and blue-green algae. See also Procaryotes.
Evolution: A process in which a population of self-replicating entities undergoes variation, with successful variants spreading and becoming the basis for further variation. See Selection.
Gene Expression: The process by which the genes' coded information is converted into the structures present and operating in the cell. Expressed genes include those that are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into protein and those that are transcribed into RNA but not translated into protein (e.g., transfer and ribosomal RNAs). See Gene, Transcription, RNA.
Gene Mapping: Determination of the relative positions of genes on a DNA molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between them.
Gene: A natural unit of the hereditary material, which is the physical basis for the transmission of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to another. See DNA, Protein.
Genetic Art (Ars Genetica): The field of artistic activity focusing on the design of organisms with heritable given aesthetic characteristics. Classical interpretation of the term based on population genetics (the study of the main factors of evolution: heredity, variability, selection) and mutation genetics (the study of mutations origin).
Genetic Code: A set of triplet code words in DNA coding for all of the amino acids. See Codon, Triplet.
Genetic Engineering: A branch of biotechnology. The selective, deliberate alteration of genes (genetic material) by man. This term has come to have a very broad meaning including the manipulation and alteration of the genetic material (constitution) of an organism in such a way as to allow it to produce endogenous proteins with properties different from those of the traditional (historical/typical), or to produce entirely different (foreign) proteins altogether. See Biotechnology.
Genetics: The branch of biology concerned with heredity. It studies the manner in which genes operate and are transmitted from parents to offspring.
Genome: The entire hereditary material in a cell, or the whole sequence of DNA. The human genome consists of 3.3 billion nucleotides coding approximately 30,000 genes (i.e., about 100,000 pairs of nucleotides per gene), bacterium genome — from 600,000 nucleotides / 600 genes (intracellar parasites) to 6-8 million nucleotides / 5,000 — 6,000 genes (freely functioning bacteria).
Genomic Kitch: Art works based on a biotechnology idea realized at the level of play with the issue by traditional media without concerning the essence of biotechnology itself.
Genomics: Analysis of the entire genome (complete set of genes) of an organism; provides information regarding the gene and protein composition of a cell. The particular biotechnological discourse covering both fundamental research (see HGP) and a variety of medical genetic practices, also a collection of specific languages, social conflicts, political campaigns, myths and knowledge, hopes and threats to human existence.
Genotype: The total hereditary constitution that an individual inherits from parents; the genetic constitution of an organism. See also Phenotype.
Greenwash: Disinformation by companies aimed at creating an image of a responsible attitude towards the environment. 
Human Genome Project (HGP): An international large-scale project (USA, 1988) coordinated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the entire nucleotide sequence of human chromosomes. Russia was the second country to conduct a national project in 1989. National programs on genomes research were set up in more than 20 countries (Great Britain, Germany, France and others). Six larger projects are coordinated by the Human Genome Organization (HUGO), established in 1988. 
Hybrid: The result of mating two organisms from different species or genetically very different members of the same species. 
Hypertext: A computer-based system for linking text and other information with cross-references, making access fast and criticisms easy to publish and find.
Hypotechnozoology: The field of zoology emerging from the underside of positivist zoology via technomodeling.
Immersive Technology: A type of interactive on-line technology that creates a complete aural and visual environment that places remote participants in a virtual space where they can interact naturally. In relation to video it means the surround effect. An immersive environment is an environment providing complete effect of presence by means of certain technologies.
In Vitro: Outside of the living organism or natural system; usually referring to artificial experimental systems such as cultures, cell-free extracts, etc.
In Vivo: Within the living organism or natural system. 
Interface: An input device or rather a point of intersection between the user and the computer for the exchange of information. The most common instruments which can facilitate this interface are the keyboard, the mouse, the Touch-screen and the joystick. A graphical user interface provides its user with a more or less «picture-oriented» means of interacting with technology. A programming interface, consisting of a set of statements, functions, options, and other ways of expressing program instructions and data provided by a program or language for a programmer's use. 
Kinetic Form of Chimera Design: The purposeful creation of chimerical artifacts having heritable aesthetic characteristics that change in time. See Chimera Design, Chimera Art. 
Limited Assembler: An assembler with built-in limits that constrain its use (for example, to make hazardous use difficult or impossible, or to build a particular thing). See Assembler.
Metabola: A wet art work or ALife work that compresses quantitative and syntactic, qualitative and semantic artifacts data, in order to produce a 'meta-model' by chimerization or new 'artificial metabolic potential' by modeling. See Wet Art, Artificial Life, Chimera Art. 
Metabolism: The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc. 
Modification: A nonhereditary change in an organism; e.g., one that is acquired from its own activity or environment. See also Genotype, Phenotype.
Molecular Technology: See Nanotechnology.
Molecule: The smallest particle of a chemical substance; typically a group of atoms held together in a particular pattern, by chemical bonds. See Atom.
Mutagen: An agent that can cause an increase in the rate of mutation. There are natural and artificial (caused by man) mutagens. See Mutation
Mutagenesis: The development of mutations. See Mutation.
Mutation: An inheritable modification in a genetic molecule, such as DNA. Mutations may be good, bad, or neutral in their effects on an organism; competition weeds out the bad, leaving the good and the neutral. 
Morphological m. — mutations causing hereditary changes to an organism or separate characteristics. 
Myoblast: A cell that by fusion with other myoblasts gives rise to myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers. The term is sometimes used for all the cells which are recognizable as immediate precursors of skeletal muscle fibers.
Nano-: A prefix meaning ten to the minus ninth power, or one billionth.
Nanocomputer: A computer made from components (mechanical, electronic, etc.) on a nanometer scale.
Nanolithography: The art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers (units of 10-9 meters, or millionths of a millimeter). This includes various methods of modifying semiconductor chips at the atomic level for the purpose of fabricating integrated circuits. See Assembler, Nanotechnology.
Nanomedicine: The application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
Nanometer (nm): A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meters, or one billionth of a meter. It is commonly used in nanotechnology, the building of extremely small machines.
Nanorobot (Nanobot): A nanorobot is a specialized nanomachine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision. Nanorobots have dimensions on the order of nanometers (a nanometer is a millionth of a millimeter, or 10-9 meter). See also Nanometer, Nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology: A technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build structures to complex, atomic specifications.
Neogenesis: Correction of the genetic code with the intention of using in organism construction those amino acids, which exist in nature, but which have never been used by terrestrial life forms. See Chimera Art.
Neural Simulation: Imitating the functions of a neural system — such as the brain — by simulating the function of each cell. See also Cell.
Neurobot: A robot the program of which is designed on the principle of neuronet function.
Neuron: A nerve cell that receives and conducts nerve impulses from the brain. It consists of a cell body called cyton, an axon, axon terminals, and dendrites.
Nonsense Codon: Any one of three triplets (U-A-G, U-A-A, or U-G-A) that cause the termination of protein synthesis (in ribosome), and thus the release from ribosome of a (completely translated) protein molecule.
Nucleotide: A small molecule composed of three parts: a nitrogen base (purine or pyrimidine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and phosphate. Nucleotides serve as the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In the genetic alphabet there are only four «letters»-nucleotides: A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), T (thymine). The sequence of «letters»-nucleotides along the DNA chain carries information determining the biological peculiarities of a living organism. SeeDNA.
Nucleus (biol.): A structure in advanced cells that contains the chromosomes and apparatus to transcribe DNA into RNA. See Transcription. In physics, the small, dense core of an atom.
Organic Molecule: A molecule containing carbon; the complex molecules in living systems are all organic molecules in this sense.
Phenotype: The physical constitution of an organism as determined by the interaction of its genetic constitution and the environment.
Phylogenesis: The sequence of events involved in the evolution of a species. See Species.
Plasmid: Autonomously replicating, extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and nonessential for cell survival under nonselective conditions. Some plasmids are capable of integrating into the host genome. A number of artificially constructed plasmids are used as cloning vectors.
Polymer: A molecule made up of smaller units bonded to form a chain.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A reaction that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to catalyze the formation of more DNA strands from an original one by the execution of repeated cycles of DNA synthesis.
Procaryotes: Simple organisms that lack a distinct nuclear membrane and other organelles. SeeEucaryotes.
Protein: A polymer compound composed of 20 amino acids (actually of more amino acids, but they result from additional chemical modification). Proteins are essential for a cell to live. They form its skeleton, catalyze chemical reactions, perform regulatory and transportation functions. Each protein molecule in the living cell has a complex spatial structure. See Polymer, Amino Acids.
Proteom: The set of all the proteins synthesized in an organism (analogous to genome). SeeGenome.
Proteomics: Total protein analysis; it reflects the dynamic situation of a cell, providing information regarding the rate of expression and regulation of individual cell proteins.
Quantum Teleportation: The duplication or re-creation of physical objects or their properties using light beams. Quantum teleportation is the transmission of information about the properties of an object at the speed of light so that the object can theoretically be duplicated or reconstructed at the destination.
Reading Frame: The particular nucleotide sequence that starts at a specific point and is then partitioned into codons. The reading frame may be shifted by removing or adding a nucleotide (s). This would cause a new sequence of codons to be read. For example, the sequence CATGGT is normally read as the two codons: CAT and GGT. If another adenosine nucleotide (A) were inserted between the initial C and A, producing the sequence CAATGGT, then the reading frame would have been shifted in such a way that the two new (different) codons would be CAA and TGG, which would code for something completely different. See DNA, Codon, Mutation, Nucleotide.
Recessive: A genetically determined characteristic that is expressed only in the homozygous recessive condition.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA): DNA formed by the merging of genes (genetic material) into a new combination.
Replication: Reproduction of a DNA molecule (inside a cell). See DNA.
Replicator: An entity which can get itself copied, including any changes it may have undergone. In a broader sense, a replicator is a system which can make a copy of itself, not necessarily copying any changes it may have undergone.
Restriction Enzyme: An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific site, allowing biologists to insert or delete genetic material. See DNA, Enzyme.
Ribonuclease: An enzyme that cuts RNA molecules into smaller pieces. See RNA.
Ribosome: A molecular machine, found in all cells, which builds protein molecules according to instructions read from RNA molecules. Ribosomes are complex structures built of protein and RNA molecules. See Nucleotide, Protein, RNA.
RNA: Ribonucleic acid; a molecule similar to DNA. In cells, the information in DNA is transcribed to RNA, which in turn is «read» to direct protein construction. Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material. See Protein.
Scanning Tunneling Microscope: A high-resolution imaging instrument that can detect and measure the positions of individual atoms on the surface of a material. A very fine conductive probe is placed at a distance of 10 to 20 A above the surface of a conductive sample, and a bias voltage is applied between probe and surface during scanning, creating overlapping electron clouds and electrons that tunnel between the potential barrier between the probe and the sample. The probe tip is maintained at a constant distance from the sample by a piezoelectric transducer, yielding a three-dimensional topographical image. See Nanolithography.
Science: The process of developing a systematized knowledge of the world through the variation and testing of hypotheses. See Engineering.
Sealed Assembler Laboratory: A work space, containing assemblers, encapsulated in a way that allows information to flow in and out but does not allow the escape of assemblers or their products. See Assembler.
Selection: 1. The process by which certain organisms are reproduced and perpetuated in the species in preference to others. Natural s. — the differential survival and reproduction of organisms with genetic characteristics that enable them to better use environmental resources. Artificial s. — the selective breeding by humans towards a desired trait in a plant, animal, or other organism which is of value (usually economic) to the humans. 2. Genetic breeding methods start by selecting particular desirable phenotypes as parents for the next generation. 
Semi-Living Organism: A class of object/being that is a combination of living tissue and non-living components kept alive using artificial means of tissue engineering, which facilitates the growth and maintenance of different organs and tissues in vitro. See Tissue Engineering, Tissue Culture and Art.
Semi-Living Sculpture: An art work that is a living tissue (i.e., a system of cells having similar origin, structure and function) grown out of an organism within the special environment. SeeTissue Engineering.
Sequencing: Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein. See Nucleotide, DNA, RNA, Protein.
Software: The instructions executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical device on which they run (the «hardware»). 
Species: A group of organisms belong to the same biological species if they are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. 
Static Form of Chimera Design: The purposeful creation of chimerical artifacts having heritable constant aesthetic characteristics. See Chimera Design, Chimera Art.
Stem Sells: An undifferentiated cell in an embryo or adult which can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different cell types. In adults, an undifferentiated cell from which some renewable tissues (blood, skin, etc.) are formed. See Totipotency.
Strain: The culture of microorganisms of common species with identical morphological and biological characteristics. See Species.
Techno-Biodiversity: Increase in the diversity of living organisms by way of the construction of artifacts.
Technoethics  ('noetic' from the Greek 'nous'): The field of humanitarian studies that involves issues governing the relationship of consciousness to technology. 
Technozoosemiotics: The field situated at the crossroads of semiotics, ethology, the cognitive sciences, technology, computer science and artistic practice; it is an integral part of zoosemiotics, which studies the signals developed by living species for inter- or extra-specific communication.
Tele-Immersion: The merging of virtual reality with collaboration technology (the connecting of people to each others applications, images and simulation).
Telematics: The convergence of telecommunications and information processing. The term has evolved to refer to automobile systems that combine GPS satellite tracking and wireless communications.
Tissue (biol.): Systems of cells having similar origin, structure and functions. Tissues also contain tissue liquid and vital functions' products.
Tissue Culture (explantation): A technique for maintaining, multiplying and growing cells from multi-cellular organisms in a liquid medium in vitro (outside of the body). See Tissue Culture and Art, Semi-Living Organism, Semi-Living Sculpture.
Tissue Culture and Art: The field of art that employs tissue engineering techniques to grow organs and tissues in vitro (outside of the body). See Tissue engineering, Semi-Living Sculpture, Tissue Culture.
Tissue Engineering: The application of the principles of life sciences and engineering to develop biological substitutes for the restoration or replacement of tissue or organ function. Tissue engineering combines knowledge from the biological sciences with the materials and engineering sciences to quantify structure-function relationships in normal and pathological tissues, to develop new approaches to repair tissues, and to develop replacements for tissue. See Tissue Art and Culture, Stem Cells.
Total Failure Strategy: A kind of art activity which, while aiming at a conscious expectation of «failure» and «misfortune» of the project, has the purpose of representing various bans on the practice of chimera art.
Totipotency: The ability of a cell to proceed through all the stages of development and thus produce a normal adult. See also Cell.
Transcription: The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template. The process whereby RNA is synthesized from a DNA template. See DNA, RNA.
Transgenesis: The transfer of genes to an unrelated organism and their subsequent expression. 
Transgenic Art: The field of artistic activity based on the methods of transgenesis. SeeTransgenesis. 
Transgenic Organism: An experimentally produced organism in which DNA has been artificially introduced and incorporated into the organism's germ line, usually by injecting the foreign DNA into the nucleus of a fertilized embryo. See DNA.
Translation: The process of protein synthesis whereby the primary structure of the protein is determined by the nucleotide sequence in mRNA. The ribosome-mediated production of a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is derived from the codon sequence of an mRNA molecule.
Triplet: A successive «frame» of three nucleotides of the mRNA corresponds to one amino acid of the protein (the synonym of codon). See Nucleotide, Codon
Vector: Any DNA structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism; most commonly used are plasmid DNA vectors or viruses. See DNA, RNA, Genome. 
Vegetal Reality: The entheogenic and spiritual multi-dimensional environment formed by psychoactive plant technology.
Virtual Reality: Computer generated reality. Term used for highly immersive spatial simulations, which contain the possibility of manoeuvring and interacting. See Immersive Technologies.
Virus: A small replicator consisting of little more than a package of DNA or RNA which, when injected into a host cell, can direct the cell's molecular machinery to make more viruses. SeeReplicator, Cell.
Wet Art: The field of artistic research that appeals both to «dry» silicon models of evolution processes (e.g., Artificial Life, Generative Art, etc.) and to «wet» molecular design of living/semi-living systems (Ars Genetica, Ars Chimera, Tissue Culture and Art). See Artificial Life, Ars Genetica, Ars Chimera, Tissue Culture and Art.
Wetmedia: The whole range of means of synthesizing, processing and manipulating, maintaining and transmitting information on biological carriers.
Wetware: A technological combination of physical and biological equipment used for creating «wet» art works. It also removes the boundary between a designed object and biological entity. See Wet Art.
Xenotransplantation: The implantation of an organ or limb from one species to another organism of a different species. See also Species.
Zygote: A cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon.